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Technology Development of Energy Storage Lithium Batteries

In recent years, China’s energy storage battery shipments in the main application scenarios of large-scale energy storage have maintained a rapid growth trend, with an average annual growth rate of more than 50% in the next three years. In 2021, China’s energy storage battery shipments will reach 48GWh, an increase of 167% year-on-year. It is estimated that the installed capacity will exceed 90GWh in 2022, an increase of 88% year-on-year, and will exceed 324GWh in 2025.

Domestic energy storage batteries are mainly used in large-scale energy storage (power system energy storage), communication system energy storage, household energy storage and portable energy storage.

Large-scale energy storage is the main application scenario of energy storage batteries, mainly used for energy storage containerized systems on the power generation side, grid side and user side, accounting for 61% of the shipments, followed by communication system energy storage, which is mainly used for communication Base station backup power accounts for 25%, and home energy storage products are mainly exported abroad. Portable energy storage accounted for the least, only 3%.

The development trend of energy storage battery products is product standardization, large-scale batteries, and de-modularization. Various companies are entering this industry and trying to become bigger and stronger. After 3 years, there will be a situation where the strong are always strong, and small and medium players who do not have the advantages of scale and the ability to develop and design high-performance batteries will be eliminated at an accelerated rate.

Lithium iron phosphate battery has become the mainstream route in China. The performance requirements of lithium battery include energy density, power density, cost, life and safety. Energy storage applications have relaxed requirements on the energy density and power density of batteries, and put more emphasis on reducing the cost of distribution and storage. Energy storage batteries must have low cost, long life, and ensure the safety of battery applications.

The performance of lithium iron phosphate batteries has a high degree of adaptation to energy storage needs, and has become the mainstream route in China. Ternary lithium batteries have high energy density and power density, but are expensive and relatively weak in safety. In June 2022, “Twenty-five Key Requirements for Preventing Power Production Accidents (2022 Edition) (Draft for Comment)” issued by the Comprehensive Department of the National Energy Administration proposed that medium and large electrochemical energy storage power stations should not use ternary lithium batteries and sodium-sulfur batteries , It is not suitable to use cascade utilization power battery.

Lithium iron phosphate batteries have excellent safety, long cycle life, abundant metal resource reserves, low cost and environmental protection, and have become the main choice of energy storage batteries.

The development direction of large-scale energy storage technology The installed capacity of large-scale energy storage is usually above the MWh level, and large batteries are expected to become the mainstream. Large-scale energy storage system is an important facility to promote the large-scale application of renewable energy and build a new power system.

It can play a role in peak regulation, frequency regulation, reserve capacity, smooth output, and ease grid congestion, including power generation side, grid side energy storage, etc. , usually dozens or even hundreds of MWh, the batteries used are mainly large-capacity square batteries.

In energy storage applications, large-capacity batteries of 280Ah and above can effectively reduce the cost of energy storage systems and reduce the difficulty of integration. They have obvious advantages and are gradually replacing the original 50Ah and 100Ah battery products in power storage scenarios.